Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary was created August 7, 1974 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Junín, which ended Spanish presence in Peru and sealed America's independence. The sanctuary's main objectives are to conserve the natural landscape where the battle was waged August 6, 1824, to conserve pre-Incan archeological remains, and to conserve the area's flora and fauna. It is located at 4,100 m altitude in Junín's high plateau in the Central Andes. Its topography is predominantly flat with some hills in the northern sector.
Vegetation in Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary corresponds to that of the Central Andean high plateau or puna. The principal floral communities are tall, dense grassy scrub with bofedales or "oconales" (high Andean wetlands) and puna grass. The sanctuary harbors a diverse avian population made up of resident and migratory species. Mammals are scarce; the Andean fox and montane guinea pig are most common, and vicuñas found within the sanctuary are of great relevance as they represent an important conservation target in the area.
The protected area is in a vulnerable situation because of existing territorial, socio-economic, institutional, and socio-cultural conflicts. The sanctuary's natural resources are used directly despite its categorization that allows only indirect uses, and as a result its vegetative coverage is degraded. The fact that there are several roads leading into the interior of the protected area and a very limited number of park guards means the resources are not properly protected. An agricultural cooperative present in the protected area farming the land and raising cattle result in property conflicts. Additional threats include extraction of products like straw for constructions and "champa" (alpaca moss) for use as fuel, guinea pig hunting, and a garbage dump located on the protected area's southern border.