Private landholders initially occupied Chacamarca's pampas. Later, the Pacific Cattlemen's Society was created and established San Francisco de Chichausiri plantation, which remained until the Agrarian Reform Law was enacted during the armed forces government. Supreme Decree 254-69-AP passed on November 18, 1969 affected the Chichausiri plantation property and under the protection of D.L. No. 17716 with 4,012 hectares, a productive agrarian cooperative was formed.
Several years later, the Junín Celebrations Committee (at the request of the Junín townspeople) proposed commemorating the 150th year anniversary of the Junín Battle via communication No. 002-CCJ, in which they solicited political and communal authorities to establish three conservation units: Chacamarca Pampa, Junín Lake, and Huayllay "Bosque de Piedras." As a result, Chacamarca National Patriotic Sanctuary was created (Supreme Decree No 0750-74-AG on August 7, 1974). In addition, the same decree created Junín National Reserve and Huayllay National Sanctuary.
The Battle of Junín took place in the pampa of Chacamarca August 6, 1824. It was one of the most important historical events of the freedom campaign and solidly contributed to the fight for Peru's independence. The National Institute of Culture declared the site "Vencedores de Junín" (Junín's Victors) an Artistic Historic Monument via Director's Resolution No. 049-96-INC/D on August 6, 1996. They also declared the archeological zone called Chacamarca National Cultural Heritage site via Director's Resolution No. 1369/INC on May 5, 2000. (4) Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary is inscribed in the Public Registries, Registry Number 01175, although there are defects with the inscription and it will be part of the protected area's land legalization in 2006. A new inscription is needed.
The area not only conserves the glory of Junín's heroes, the land is protected for future generations' spiritual enjoyment and to contribute to the area's social and economic development by indirect use of its natural resources, especially through tourism.
Objectives of Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary
The Strategic Plan of the Natural Protected Areas, approved via Supreme Decree No. 010-99-AG, defines the "Historic Sanctuary" category as: Areas protected with intangible character; areas that contain relevant natural values and comprise the natural environment of nationally significant sites, "significant" because the sites harbor monumental heritage or archeological importance or because extraordinary moments in history took place there. Chacamarca's main objective is to conserve the natural environment where the Battle of Junín took place on August 6, 1824.
Specific objectives include: Maintain the natural environmental of the archeological and historical resources and cultural activities located within the sanctuary. Conserve wildlife present in the area, considering that it is a refuge zone for resident and migratory species, which will allow flow of genetic material to persist in an environment becoming more and more fragmented with each passing year. Conserve archeological heritage, including archeological remains of the ancient Inca Chacamarca settlement and their "colcas" or storage structures. Conserve historical heritage, represented by the field where the Battle of Junín was fought, the monument dedicated to the victors, and the old plantation home. Promote the sanctuary's development as a tourist center and stimulate interest to visit by promoting activities within the sanctuary and in its zone of influence. Offer opportunities to study its environment, observe natural and restoration processes, and investigate genetic resources conservation that may someday be used to improve productive species. Offer opportunities to study biological and archeological resources, historical processes and cultural events in the sanctuary's zones. In addition, provide opportunities for recreation and outdoor enjoyment. (5)
The most important planning document is the Master Plan, which defines zoning, strategies, and general policies. Chief Resolution No. 466-2002-INRENA approved Chacamarca's Master Plan on December 20, 2002. The process to elaborate the plan began much earlier however, in January 2001. Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary management team initiated the process when they established cooperation with local authorities and leaders and different public and private institutions carrying out activities within the protected area. Their efforts were to ensure that the process was conducted in a participatory manner. The Master Plan aims to fulfill the sanctuary's objectives by spatially organizing the area into zones and implementing a logical sequence of activities.
There are five zones in Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary.
Wildlife zone: area with representative sample of dry puna prairie and bofedal habitats, harboring typical sanctuary wildlife species. The endemic wildlife species present require protection and permitted activities include research, education, and recreation.
Historic-cultural zone: areas with historic or archeological value that should be managed to maintain their integrity in their natural environment. Permitted activities include establishment of interpretation facilities for visitors and local people, research, educational activities, and recreation related to the existing cultural values.
Special use zone: this includes areas occupied before the protected area was established. Pre-existing elements include a railroad and right of way on both sides of the line that cross the protected area. Access routes, such as the sanctuary's main entrance road, and 6 meters on each side. Also part of the special use zones are the rural communities of San Pedro de Cajas and Villa de Junín, places where traditional sheep and domesticated camelid grazing is carried out. Limitations are established in this zone so that grazing is done in a sustainable way, maintaining healthy vegetation and reducing the risk of fire.
Tourist and recreation zone: areas with attractive landscape features that would be of interest to and appropriate for visitors. Permitted activities in this zone include educational activities and research, as well as construction of infrastructure for visitor services, including access routes. Areas zoned for tourism and recreation include the monument Vencedores de la Batalla de Junín, the old plantation house, and archeological remains.
Buffer zone: areas next to the sanctuary that require special treatment (because of their nature or location) to guarantee the area's conservation. (6)
According to the general policies, the main priority for the area is to restore its values, protect its natural environment and facilitate cultural use (recreation, education, and research) within legally established guidelines. In hopes that the area will contribute to local development in an organized and systematic way, a series of programs for the sanctuary's management and use have been established.
The Resource Management program includes several subprograms. 1) Protection subprogram aims to reduce the number of infractions committed by controlling access and patrolling the area. 2) Natural Resource Management subprogram aims to repopulate natural flora and fauna species by eradicating exotics, regulating grazing, and restoring the landscape. 3) Physical-legal Titling subprogram tries to legalize claims to property, establish a registry of proprietors and holders by maintaining a record of registry cards and adjoining acts as well as establish internal and external demarcation.
The Public Use program includes: 1) Tourism subprogram tries to encourage tourism, implement facilities and tourist infrastructure, and control impacts of tourism. The tourism and recreation use plan will be incorporated with the plans for Junín National Reserve and Huayllay National Sanctuary to promote integral tourism in the near future. 2) Environmental Education subprogram aims to increase awareness of the sanctuary's historic values. The environmental education plan includes activities oriented at visitors as well as the local population. 3) Research subprogram intends to increase research in the area of priority topics. The research plan has been created for such purposes and a library has been implemented and maintained.
The Management Support program includes: 1) Operations subprogram whose goal is to optimize the use of funds, supplies, and equipment assigned to the sanctuary. Vehicles, equipment and infrastructure are maintained and repaired under this program and plans for purchases and services are scheduled. 2) Staff Development subprogram works to ensure that its personnel are knowledgeable and have the abilities to complete duties effectively. There is a training and implementation plan including personnel rotation, interchanges, and hiring guidelines.
Volunteer park guard Duannee taking notes
3) Communication subprogram works to earn a favorable opinion within the local community. A communication plan has been designed and implemented to publicize information about activities within the protected area. 4) The goal of the Financial Sustainability subprogram is to raise funds and it is done according to the strategy definition for fund-raising. 5) The goal of the Planning and Monitoring subprogram is to ensure that the administration has a mechanism to continue implementing the master plan, that biological diversity is maintained, and that management is efficient. This is done by evaluating the plan's implementation, monitoring biological diversity and monitoring management effectiveness. 6) Citizen Participation subprogram seeks to have conditions and opportunities to coordinate with other institutions and groups to optimize the sanctuary's management. Within the subprogram, a management committee has been formed, concessions granted, and volunteer park guard corps created (made up of students and local volunteers). (7)
The Natural Protected Areas Agency of the National Natural Resources Institute (INRENA) within the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for Peru's natural protected areas, which are part of the System of Natural Protected Areas (Sistema de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado - SINANPE). Law Number 26834, Natural Protected Areas Law passed June 30, 1997, and its corresponding Supreme Decree Number 038-2001-AG of June 26, 2001 and the National Strategy (or Directive Plan) Supreme Decree Nº 010-99-AG regulate their administration.
Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary is administered by a regional administration that also oversees Junín National Reserve and Huayllay National Sanctuary. There is one director, an administrator, six park guards, and one coordinator for all three protected areas.
According to its master plan, in order to effectively carry out normal sanctuary activities, the following staff is needed in Chacamarca: A director, which is the maximum authority, responsible for planning and implementing the master plan, elaborating annual operative plans, coordinating interinstitutional cooperation, supervising activities and any concessions in the area, preparing progress and annual reports, and reporting on solicitation efforts. A specialist is needed, responsible for maintaining efforts to monitor management indicators, and implementing the protected area's core programs (research, environmental education, and tourism). Four park guards are needed who would be responsible for controlling access, maintaining infrastructure, and participating in monitoring and extension work. For control purposes, two park guards must be on duty at all times. The actual staffing realities however, are much different. Of the six park guards assigned to the three protected areas, only two guards are assigned to Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary. As a result, 24-hour security is absent, as the guards travel from Junín to their stations at the park guard post only during the day.
Infrastructure at Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary includes a rented administrative office in the city of Junín where the director and administration is located. There are two concrete signs, one located at the sanctuary's entrance and the other by the highway. There are two concrete boundary markers posted along the protected area's border. There is a control post located at the sanctuary's entrance, with two small rooms that belong to INRENA. There are four small signs, strategically located along the road to the sanctuary, at the battlefield, and the archeological colca remains.
The old plantation also belongs to the sanctuary (with guest rooms, camps, kitchens, dining areas, offices, salons, bathrooms, a chalet for guests, and storage rooms among others), although the Chichausiri Productive Agrarian Cooperative (Cooperativa Agraria de Producción Chichausiri) currently occupies the plantation. In addition, the National Cultural Institute administers a museum located within the monument commemorating the Battle of Junín. (8)
The administration conducts patrols with the help of volunteer park guards. This program was initiated to integrate local stakeholders in the sanctuary's conservation. They also carry out environmental education activities, monitor avifauna and camelids (Vicuñas) and restore parcels of burned prairie. The area needs more resources for research.
The Management Committee
As stipulated in the Natural Protected Areas law, its corresponding regulation, SINANPE's strategic plan, and the sanctuary's master plan, Chacamarca has a Management Committee that supports the protected area. They are to ensure proper sanctuary functioning and follow up on implementation of the master plan, other approved plans, monitoring, and evaluation, and provide feedback to comply with regulations.
Members of the committee who meet periodically include Junín's Municipal Mayor, the vice prefect, Junín's Agrarian Agency, the rural community of Villa de Junín, the rural community of San Pedro de Cajas, Junín's Subregional Development Office, San Ignacio de Loyola Institute of Technology, two local citizens, and INRENA. The recurrent theme discussed at their meetings has been the presence of the cooperative on protected area land.
Compared to other protected areas within SINANPE, Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary earns insignificant amounts of funds on its own and must depend almost exclusively on the State for funding. As a result, there is not enough money to complete sanctuary activities. (9)
The sanctuary receives S/. 4000 Nuevos Soles ($1120 US) annually for recurrent and logistical expenses. It also receives a small stipend (about $300 US) to compensate volunteer park guards from the international aid project KfW Protección de Áreas Naturales PAN (German Aid for International Development Natural Protected Area Program). Staff salaries make up a significant part of State support: 1 director receives S/. 2500 Nuevos Soles; 1 administrator receives S/. 2000 Nuevos Soles, 1 professional receives S/. 1600 Nuevos Soles and 2 park guards receive S/. 1000 each. These amounts are paid on a monthly basis. This equals approximately S/. 4000 per month in salaries for Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary personnel (after dividing the salaries of the director, administrator, and specialist by three because they divide their time between three protected areas in Junín).
INRENA sign posted at the protected area's entrance, next to the control post