Hunters and gathers first populated what is now Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary thousands of years ago. Since immemorial times, a tribe called "Pumpush" occupied the highlands of Junín and Bombón. Once this group settled in the region, they strategically established their presence. Another group present in the area were the Yarovillcas who arrived from the north equipped with important agro pastoral technology. They raised South American camelid species and cultivated Peruvian ginseng (called "maca"), potatoes, and other Andean tubers. The Yarovillcas settled in the area validly resisted Inca expansion. The Incas had difficulty occupying Junín's highlands and incorporated the area into the Incan empire overtime. (10)
Later, Chacamarca's population emerged in the pampa, near the Inca trail bridges (called Capac Ñam) that come from Jauja and extend to Bombón Marca (the word Chacamarca can be broken down into its root words, Chaca, meaning bridge, and marca meaning town). The Incan settlement of Chacamarca was a significant Incan administrative center and an important storage and deposit site-one that is being destroyed by current human activity. At the beginning of more modern times, when the republic began, wealthy landowners occupied Chacamarca's pampas. Later, the Pacific Cattlemen's Society was created with the Chichausiri Plantation that persisted until the Agrarian Reform Law. (11)
Pastures for livestock
Today's agricultural activities in Chacamarca's zone of influence include planting pasture and foraging crops. Farmers plant using infiltration ditches and in many cases native pasture grasses are mixed with cultivated ones by overturning cultivated seeds like red clover (trébol) and lucerne (dactylis). Another important crop in the zone is Peruvian ginseng called "maca," esteemed for its invigorating qualities.
Within Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary, extensive livestock grazing (sheep, cattle, and South American camelids) is the most important economic activity. Several groups are actively engaged in grazing their animals on sanctuary land, including the "San Francisco de Chichausiri" Agrarian Cooperative, the rural community "Villa de Junín," the rural community "San Pedro de Cajas," and the Izaguirre and Patiño families. In most cases, these land users also maintain land outside of the protected area since pastures are used only during certain times of the year when herds enter the sanctuary. (12)
Aside from those permanent residents of the old plantation house and some temporary herders called "choceros," no permanent communities or settlers are found within the sanctuary. Part of the sanctuary is considered property of rural communities and in the past, they have resisted use limitations the sanctuary has placed on common lands, which overlap with sanctuary lands. This resistance persists today at varied degrees. Introduction of elements into the area, such as pastures, fences, cultivated grasses, and domesticated animals, is incompatible with the area's status as a sanctuary.
San Francisco de Chichausiri Agricultural Cooperative
The cooperative was originally called "Pacific Cattlemen's Plantation," and it belonged to the Cárpena family and associates of the textile factory Pacífico Limited. On July 12, 1976 the workers unanimously decided to form an associative business, and overtime this has evolved into today's cooperative. On March 18, 1977, the General Stockholders Assembly, following Legislative Decrees No. 85 and 141, adopted their new name. The cooperative was officially recognized in Resolution No. 1530 ORAMS VI-SINAMOS Huancayo on June 20, 1977 and inscribed in public registries in Junín in the 13th Volume of Cooperatives on October 3, 1977.
Today, the associative organization and business is structured in the following way. There is Administrative Council made up of a president, vice president, secretary, and primary and secondary councilmen. There is a Vigilance Council with a president, vice president, and one councilman. There are staff positions like manager, accountant, merchant, machinist, cashier-dispatcher, cattle sanitary inspector, and ovine sanitary inspector. There are 21 associates incorporated in the cooperative (according to the president), although there are closer to 40 associates when including workers from adjacent areas.
The cooperative was organized to conduct associative ranching and the General Direction of the Agrarian Reform and Rural Settlement awarded them land. At the time of their formation, the cooperative covered 3,930 hectares. Cooperative members raise sheep and cattle. The cattle are raised extensively and are used for meat and milk; 85% of the milk is used to produce butter and the remaining 15% is sold as fresh milk. Sheep are also used for meat and wool. (13)
Diverse regional organizations play a role in the protected area. First, because the protected area is located within the Provincial of Junín Municipality, it has a certain level of influence. The Law of Municipalities authorizes it to directly participate in conserving its natural resources. The Regional Government of Junín is responsible for strengthening integral regional development and they carry out infrastructure works following development plans and programs based on the Regionalization Organic Law No. 27867 of November 2002. The Ministry of Agriculture is also present, not only INRENA and the Natural Protected Areas Service, but also the Regional Agrarian Agency that is responsible for agricultural, pastoral, and uncultivated lands, and for promoting activities related to the appropriate productive sector. The Ministry of International Commerce and Tourism would also be present if the protected area were to promote tourism activities, including crafts development. Overall, these institutions do not coordinate actions and in fact, they lack thorough understanding of each other's functions.
Rural communities, traditional and stable organizations of public interest are also present. These groups are made up of local citizens and they work to better use their land to produce equitable benefits and promote development. Of those communities adjacent to the protected area, Villa de Junín is established in the district, province, and department of Junín. The Ministry of Indian Affairs' Supreme Resolution of August 31, 1928 recognized the organization. It is autonomous in its organization, communal work, and land uses as well as its economic and sociocultural administration in accordance with the Rural Communities Law No. 24656 and its regulation Supreme Decree 008-91.
Another institution with important presence in the sanctuary because of archeological remains and the area's history is the National Cultural Institute. It promotes and develops cultural manifestations and is responsible for conserving the cultural heritage. This agency administers the National System of Museums and therefore has jurisdiction of Chacamarca's museum.14 It should be noted however that the museum is an empty building at the base of the monument of the Battle of Junín with painted walls depicting historical events. There are several artifacts such as period uniforms, arms, and archeological remains like ceramics, and carved stones that are held by the municipality or individuals living in the zone. These items are loaned and exhibited during special festivals and celebrations. The National Cultural Institute should assume its responsibility for the museum and seek ways to improve it.
Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary is a recognized tourist attraction because of its historic, cultural, and natural values. There are a few visitors on a regular basis, mostly on the weekends and usually people from the Junín region, although sometimes people from Tarma make the visit, as do passerbys traveling along the main highway. During the last few years, visitation has increased during certain holidays and Saint's Week (semana santa) before Easter. The holidays with increased visitation include Ondores Patron Saint's Festival on June 24, Carhuamayo Patron Saint's Festival on August 30, and of course the celebration of the Battle of Junín.
The celebrations of the historic Battle of Junín are special. On August 6th every year, approximately 6,000 people congregate within the monument area, including visitors, vendors, and "pachamanqueros" (picnickers who come to barbeque) to participate in or observe the annual patriotic civic parade. Unfortunately, the festivities of the day result in impacts to the sanctuary. Visitors leave garbage, dig barbeque pits, and bring in their vehicles.
According to registries, the sanctuary has had the following number of visitors from 1998 to 2002: 6800 (1998), 4750 (1999), 5833 (2000), 6030 (2001) and 8686 (2002).15 While formal registries have not been kept over the last few years, these data allow us to get an idea of the average number of visitors to the area.
There are important archeological remains in the sanctuary as well as historically important areas, like the battlefiled and the monument erected for fallen heroes where the museum is found, and installations exist that could be used to develop sustainable tourism.16 The area's primary archeological remains are the "colcas" or circular deposits lined on three terraces on the side of San Francisco Hill, the remains of an Inca settlement in the meseta's flatlands, the remains of the Inca Trail Capac Ñan, and Incan raised fields used to produce Peruvian ginseng ("Maca") and other products.
"Colcas" or old storage cylinders
The sanctuary does have infrastructure suitable for offering services to tourists (lodging and food) including the old plantation house (although this is currently held by San Francisco de Chichausiri Agricultural Cooperative), which blends in harmoniously with the environment and is strategically located such that it maintains the area's natural aspect.
There are four tourist circuits, one in the area of the Battle of Junín, one near the archeological remains, one near the plantation house, and the last one in the wildlife zone. Local experts guide tourists along these circuits and offer accurate information about the Battle of Junín, the archeological characteristics of the Pumpush community, and the natural elements of the sanctuary. In addition, visitors can walk along marked trails with signs and enjoy natural lookout vantages. (17)
Sign at the Battlefield
INRENA regulates conditions and types of tourism permitted in a protected area, while the Vice-Minister of Tourism is responsible for the formalities related to certifying the different levels of tourism operations, from guides to operators, for example. In the event that the Vice-Minister of Tourism requires formal certifications of operators, guides, or lodging establishments, INRENA only authorizes tourism operation of those meeting such requirements. Any tourism-related construction within a protected area must be done only after INRENA's approval (through the Natural Protected Areas Agency and the Office of Transectoral Environmental Solicitation, Evaluation, and Information of Natural Resources-OGATEIRN), following guidelines established in the Master Plan and existing laws. (18)
Tourist and recreational activities take place in areas appropriate for such activities including the Tourist and Recreation Use Zone, the Historic-Cultural Zone, and the Buffer Zone as is required in the sanctuary's Master Plan. Tourism is not permitted in the Special Use Zone and it is permitted in the Wildlife Zone as long as no new infrastructure is implemented. The Buffer zone and Tourist and Recreational zones are authorized in the Master Plan; actually tourism is encouraged in these zones and the old plantation home is located here.
Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary is part of the Junín complex that includes Junín National Reserve and Huayllay National Sanctuary as well. These three protected areas have great potential for tourism development by strengthening the diverse circuits already in use by local tourism agencies. Elaborating a Tourism and Recreation Plan for the Junín complex has been proposed in order to articulate and promote efficient tourism management in the three natural protected areas.
Implementing a tourism use plan involves active participation of distinct stakeholders and interest groups, each playing an important role in planning tourism activities in Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary. A joint effort of all sectors is the only thing that can guarantee effective implementation of the plan. Principal entities involved in tourism activity are governmental agencies (Ministries, Departmental Agencies, Regional and Municipal Governments), local people, tourism and travel agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international development agencies, tour guides, visitors, and financial institutions.
Lately, more and more tourism agencies are visiting the sanctuary. Unfortunately, they are informal and usually create disorder, often confusing visitors because they use unqualified guides that provide misinformation. In addition, these unqualified guides encourage visitors to avoid paying entrance fees thereby creating an uncomfortable situation when passing through the sanctuary's control post for both visitors and sanctuary staff. (19)