General information
Summary
Description
Threats
Recommended solutions
Conclusions
References

 

 

 

Flora

 

Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary vegetation is that of high Andean landscape, or Central Andean Puna. Principal floral communities include tall, dense grassy scrub with bofedales or "oconales" (high Andean wetlands) and puna grasses.

 

Puna scrub is located on rolling and circular hills. Dominant vegetation includes sharp, hard-leafed gramineaes called "Ichu," dominant species include Festuca dolychophylla, Stipa ichu, Calamagrostris rigida, Calamagrostris recta and other herbaceous plants.

 

Small plants that bunch together dominate Puna grasses. Species include Calamagrostris vicunarum, Carex equadorica, Bromus pitensis, Alchemilla pinnata, Scirpus rigidus, Astragalus sp., and in drier areas "garbancillo" Astragalus garbancillo.

 

The bofedales or oconales appear in flat zones where there are outcroppings or small trickles of water. Characteristic vegetation in these places include bunched plants like alpaca moss called "champa" (Distichia muscoides), champa estrella (Plantago rigida), pilli de humedal (Hypochaeris sp.), and libro libro (Alchemilla diplophylla). (1

 

Other species include: Liabum bullatum, Werneria nubigena, Desia pinatifida, Hipochoeris taraxacoides, Heliotropium indicum, Minulus glabratus, Trifolium repens, Gentiana sedifolia, Luzula peruviana, Acaulimalva crenata, Oenothera multicaulis, Oxalis atruglandulosus, Stipa depauperata, Polygopon interruptus, Hordeum muticum, Dactylis glomerata, Aciachne pulvinata, Azorella diapensioides, Solanum acaule, Verónica persica. (2)

 

Fauna

 

Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary harbors diverse avian populations including both resident and migratory species. The most important species (consumed by locals) include Puna tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii) and the Andean goose (Chloephaga melanoptera). Another important species, used for medicinal purposes, is the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola). Other commonly spotted birds include Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), Andean lapwing (Vanellus resplendens), miners (Geositta sp.), cinclodes (Cinclodes atacamensis and Cinclodes fuscus), yellow finches (Sicalis uropygialis, Sicalis raimondii), red-backed hawks (Buteo polyosoma) and various duck species (Anas puna, Anas flavirostris, Anas georgica, Lophoneta specularioides).

 

Other birds present in the zone include: Nothoprocta pentlandi, Agriornis montana, Phrygilus gayi, Phrygilus plebejus, Anthus bogotensis, Petrochelidon andecola, Troglodytes aedon, Turdus chiguanco, Falco femoralis, Bubulcus ibis, Egreta thula, Aesthenes pudibunda, Aesthenes wyatti, Rollandia rollans, Calidris mauri, Larus serranus, Metriopelia melanoptera, Atiene cunicularia, Circus cinereus, Purabuteo unicinetus, Oreotrochilus melanogaster, Oreotrochilus estella.

 

Within the sanctuary, mammals are scarce. The most representative species include vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), Andean fox (also called culpeo, Pseudalopex culpaeus), Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga), and the montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii). Among the reptiles inhabiting the area is the lizard Liolaemus alticolor. (3) Censuses conducted by INRENA estimate an average of 50 vicuñas present in the sanctuary. 

 

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